Beginner’s Guide to Stock Market Investment – Part 1

Stock Market Investment

Stock Market Made Simple: Your Beginner’s Guide to Investing


Stock market investment is one of the lucrative path to make money. it provides an opportunity to make money and long term wealth creation roadmap, safeguard your money against inflation, and provide an opportunity to be part of great companies, innovation and growth story of the economy. In this 3 part series at, we will go over 3 articles written for beginners and will provide a basic understanding of stock market investment. Our objective here is to present all the articles in easy and digestible manner. It is a comprehensive guide to get started with stock market investing. Let’s begin.

The stock market is like a big and vast marketplace where people buy and sell small pieces of big companies. When a company does well, the value of those pieces, called shares, goes up, giving investors a chance to make money through capital gains. It’s an essential part of finance because it helps companies grow by raising money from the public. For regular folks, the stock market offers an opportunity to grow our wealth and be part-owners of companies we invest in. Nevertheless, it’s not without risks, so it’s essential to be thoughtful and do some research before getting started. With the right tools, knowledge and approach, the stock market can be a valuable tool for our path to make money.

In part 1, we will go over the very basics of stock market, shares and how stock prices are decided.

In part 2, we will go over the motivation and risk of stock market investment.

In part 3, we will discuss how to get started, how to buy stocks and highlight the strategies.

Section 1: What is the Stock Market?

The stock market is a centralized marketplace where individuals and institutions can buy and sell shares of publicly traded companies. It acts as a platform where investors can trade ownership in these companies, represented by shares of stock.

When a company decides to go public, it issues shares of its ownership to the public in the form of stocks. Investors can then buy these stocks, becoming partial owners of the company. As the company grows and becomes more profitable, the value of its stock may increase, allowing investors to benefit from capital appreciation.

The stock market is essential in the world of finance for several reasons:

Capital Raising: Companies can raise capital by issuing stocks to the public, which provides them with funds to expand their business, invest in new projects, or pay off debts.

Wealth Creation: Investing in the stock market offers individuals the opportunity to grow their wealth over time. By purchasing stocks that increase in value, investors can achieve capital gains.

Ownership and Voting Rights: Owning stocks means having ownership in a company. Shareholders typically have the right to vote on important company decisions and elect the board of directors.

Liquidity: The stock market provides liquidity to investors, allowing them to buy and sell stocks quickly. This liquidity makes it easier for investors to convert their investments into cash.

Economic Indicators: The performance of the stock market is often seen as a reflection of the overall health of the economy. A rising stock market is often considered a sign of economic growth and confidence.

Diversification: The stock market offers a wide range of investment options, enabling investors to diversify their portfolios across different industries and companies.

Benchmarking: Stock market indices, such as the S&P 500 or Dow Jones Industrial Average, serve as benchmarks for overall market performance and are used as indicators of economic trends.

Overall, the stock market plays a crucial role in channeling capital, fostering economic growth, and providing opportunities for individuals and institutions to participate in the ownership and success of publicly traded companies. However, it’s important to note that investing in the stock market involves risks, and individuals should carefully research and consider their investment decisions.

Role of Companies Issuing Stocks:

When a company decides to raise capital to fund its operations, growth, or new projects, it may choose to issue stocks. By issuing stocks, the company offers ownership shares to the public. These shares represent a fractional ownership of the company. When individuals or institutions buy these shares, they become shareholders or stockholders, making them part-owners of the company.

Companies issue stocks primarily for the following reasons:

Capital Raising: By selling shares to the public, the company raises funds without taking on debt. This capital can be used to invest in new technology, expand operations, develop new products, or pay off existing debts.

Equity Financing: Issuing stocks allows companies to raise money without incurring interest payments or repayment obligations. It’s a form of equity financing, where investors become partners in the company’s growth and success.

Liquidity for Owners: For private companies looking to go public, issuing stocks provides a way for early investors, founders, and employees with stock options to cash out and realize the value of their holdings.

Enhanced Visibility and Credibility: Being publicly traded can increase a company’s visibility and credibility in the market, attracting potential customers, partners, and employees.

Currency for Acquisitions: Publicly traded companies can use their own stocks as a form of currency for acquiring other companies or businesses.

What is the role of Investors Purchasing Stocks:

When investors purchase stocks, they essentially buy ownership shares in the issuing company. Each share represents a proportional claim to the company’s assets, earnings, and future profits. Investors can buy and sell stocks in the stock market through brokerage accounts or other financial platforms.

Investors purchase stocks for various reasons:

Capital Appreciation: Investors hope that the value of the stocks they buy will increase over time. They can sell these stocks later at a higher price, making a profit known as capital appreciation.

Dividend Income: Some companies pay out a portion of their profits to shareholders in the form of dividends. Investors who seek regular income may invest in dividend-paying stocks.

Diversification: Investing in a mix of stocks from different companies and industries can help investors diversify their portfolio and spread risk.

Long-Term Wealth Building: Stocks have historically shown the potential for higher returns compared to other assets over the long term, making them a popular choice for long-term wealth-building strategies.

Ownership and Voting Rights: As shareholders, investors have the right to vote on certain company decisions, such as electing the board of directors or approving major corporate actions.

Overall, the stock market facilitates the interaction between companies seeking capital and investors looking to invest in businesses and potentially share in their success. It serves as a vital mechanism for companies to raise funds and investors to participate in the growth of publicly traded companies.

Section 2: How Does the Stock Market Work?

The stock market is a marketplace where buyers and sellers trade shares of publicly listed companies. Here’s how it works:

Listed Companies: Companies looking to raise capital and gain liquidity for their shares apply to be listed on a stock exchange. Once approved, they become publicly traded companies.

Stock Exchanges: Stock exchanges, like the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASDAQ, provide a platform for trading these listed stocks. Buyers and sellers place their orders through brokerage firms, which act as intermediaries.

Buyers and Sellers: Investors can be individuals, institutions, or even other companies. They buy and sell shares based on their expectations of a company’s future performance.

Price Determination: The price of a stock is determined by supply and demand. If more people want to buy a stock (demand), its price rises. If more people want to sell (supply), the price falls.

Bid and Ask Prices: The “bid” is the highest price a buyer is willing to pay, while the “ask” is the lowest price a seller is willing to accept. When the bid and ask prices match, a trade is executed.

Market Makers: In some exchanges, market makers ensure there is liquidity by constantly buying and selling shares at the bid and ask prices.

Indices: Market indices, like the S&P 500 and Dow Jones Industrial Average, track the performance of a group of stocks, providing insight into the overall market’s movement.

Market Hours: Trading occurs during specific hours on business days. After-hours and pre-market trading may also be available on some exchanges.

Types of Orders: Investors can place various types of orders, such as market orders (buy or sell at the best available price) and limit orders (buy or sell at a specified price or better).

Regulation: Stock markets are regulated to maintain fairness, transparency, and investor protection.

Overall, the stock market facilitates capital raising for companies and offers investors opportunities to own shares and potentially benefit from a company’s growth and profitability. However, investing in the stock market carries risks, and investors need to conduct thorough research and understand their risk tolerance before making investment decisions.

What are shares

Shares represent small pieces of ownership in a company. When a company wants to raise money from the public, it divides its ownership into shares and offers them for sale. When you buy these shares, you become a shareholder in the company.

As a shareholder, you have a claim to a part of the company’s assets, earnings, and future profits. If the company does well, the value of its shares may go up, allowing you to make a profit if you decide to sell them later.

Shareholders sometimes have the right to vote on certain company decisions, like choosing board members. Some companies also share their profits with shareholders through regular payments called dividends.

It’s essential to know that investing in shares comes with risks. The value of shares can go down as well, depending on how the company performs and the overall market conditions. So, before investing, make sure to do your research and consider your financial goals carefully.

How stock prices are determined

Stock prices are determined through the basic principles of supply and demand in the market. It’s like any other product or service—when there is more demand for something, its price tends to go up, and when there is less demand, its price goes down.

Stock prices are decided by a mix of things like how well a company is doing, what people think about it, and the general economy. When a company does good and people believe in it, the stock price goes up. Economic factors and how much of a company’s shares are available for buying also play a part. Dividends and buybacks can make people want the stock more. News and events can cause sudden changes too. Stock prices are always moving, so it’s hard to predict them in the short term. It’s smart to think long-term when investing.


Here’s how supply and demand influence stock prices:

Supply of Shares: The supply of shares refers to the number of shares available for sale by investors who want to sell their holdings. The supply increases when more people are willing to sell their shares, either to take profits or because they believe the stock is overvalued.

Demand for Shares: The demand for shares represents the number of shares that investors want to buy. Demand increases when investors believe the stock is undervalued or has strong growth potential.

Equilibrium Point: The price at which the supply of shares matches the demand is called the equilibrium point or the market price. At this point, there is a balance between buyers and sellers, and the stock price remains stable.

Impact of Increased Demand: If there is an increase in demand for a particular stock, more investors want to buy it, driving the stock price up. As buyers compete for limited shares, they are willing to pay higher prices, leading to an increase in the stock’s market price.

Impact of Increased Supply: Conversely, if there is a surge in the supply of a stock as more investors want to sell, the stock price tends to decrease. With more sellers offering their shares, the competition to find buyers can lead to lower prices.

Market Sentiment: Factors like positive news about a company, strong financial performance, or favorable economic conditions can boost investor confidence and increase demand for its shares, causing the stock price to rise.

Market News and Events: Events like mergers, acquisitions, changes in company leadership, or economic indicators can influence investor sentiment, affecting both demand and supply and consequently impacting the stock price.

It’s important to note that supply and demand dynamics can change rapidly in response to market conditions, investor perceptions, and global events. As a result, stock prices fluctuate throughout trading sessions as buyers and sellers adjust their positions.

The constant interaction between supply and demand in the stock market creates a dynamic pricing mechanism, and it reflects the collective opinions and expectations of investors about a company’s future prospects. As a result, stock prices are continuously changing in response to the ever-changing market forces of supply and demand.

Continue reading >> Beginner’s Guide to Stock Market Investment – Part 2